contributions with disagreements frequently occurring between its temperate and tropical members (Cock, 2008). The International Response, in the 1970s and 1980s, numerous international initiatives and organisations were proposed which funded projects aimed at promoting reforms to forest governance in response to growing public awareness of logging and deforestation (Cock, 2008). Importing countries should be encouraged to implement measures and processing countries, such as China and Malaysia, need to establish agreements and enter into legally binding mechanisms (House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee, 2009). Many international treaties and organisations have developed frameworks that partially regulate, control and limit to some extent, the international trade of timber (Schloenhardt, 2008). Print, reference this, published: Mon, introduction. Another limitation is regarding international law as conventions and agreements are usually based on good faith, with enforcement in the form of pressure from the international community, naming and shaming and on rare occasions, economic sanctions (Fisher, 2003).
Overall, this response mechanism appears to have negligible effectiveness. Glastra (1999) notes that the convention fails to deal with some elements that are specific for forests, and as such, additional protocols should be added. However as Geist Lambdin (2002) have shown, illegal logging on its own is not as significant a cause of deforestation, compared to agricultural expansion or technological factors. An international organisation attempts to govern the global political economy in relation to some key issue and imposes order through pressures and restraints (Emadi-Coffin, 2002). Way to write title changing the fourth estate essays on south african journalism african journalism chapman essays of elia charles lamb check test question questions that worked sat writing class rule rules tutor workshop confidential dummies accepted that made a difference made a difference make. During the late 1980s and 1990s the international agenda was focused on issues such as conservation and reforestation (Cock, 2008).
Table 3 reveals estimates of the illegal proportion of wood products imported by many countries, even in those countries who have adopted legislation or formal agreements to exclude illegal material. Additionally, clearing external debt of countries that are major producers of illegal timber may provide a pathway to eliminate concessions and subsidies related to timber and timber products (McCarthy, 2002). Illegalities may also occur during transport, including illegal processing and export as well as misdeclaration to customs, before the timber enters the legal market. Overview of Illegal Logging and Trade. All Answers ltd, 'Illegal logging' (m, October 2018) p?vref1 accessed Reference Copied to Clipboard. Its ability to address illegal logging has been restricted by a lack of authority and resources (Cock, 2008). Environmental costs may comprise of accelerated soil erosion, and illegal logging in protected areas (Callister, 1999). The US implemented an amendment to the Lacey Act only recently in 2008 which prohibits the import of illegal timber and allows for prosecution of violations either through civil, criminal or forfeiture provisions (Chatham House, 2009). It is fuelled substantially by a large and indiscriminate international market demand for cheap timber and timber products (EIA, 2008). Efforts to combat illegal logging and trade have started to become a policy priority across the globe and international initiatives have been established (EIA, 2008; Glastra, 1999). Schloenhardt (2008) states that certification would assist in identifying legal products and that electronic certification systems would facilitate this certification effectively.
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