could be doing more harm than good. Cited in Latzko, 1997. The myth of the superhuman professor. Terms like "customer focus "employee empowerment "continuous assessment and "Demings 14 principles" started appearing with regularity in education journals and in administrative pronouncements on campuses all over the country. In the sections that follow, we describe several strategies known to be particularly effective. Comparisons with traditionally-taught students. In the final analysis, however, the quality of a teaching program is primarily related to the quality of the instruction that takes place in individual classrooms. If I manufacture automobiles, the customers are automobile buyers. Instructors who wish to improve teaching in a course should consult the literature, see which instructional methods have been shown to work, and implement those with which they feel most comfortable. Education, 84,.4: 361367., and. TQM was developed by identifying problems with existing manufacturing practices and then applying a combination of sound economic and psychological principles to devise a better approach. Evaluation (choosing from among alternatives determine which of several versions of an essay is better, and explain your reasoning; select from among available options for expanding production capacity, and justify your choice.
Cooperative learning imposes a learning curve on both students and instructors. A particularly effective learning assessment vehicle is the portfolio, a set of student products collected over time that provides a picture of the students growth and development. Terre Haute, IN: Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. (Tenure has no counterpart in industry.) If they ask professors to do something that requires a substantial expenditure of time and/or effortsuch as undertaking a quality-based teaching improvement programthey must somehow make a convincing case that doing it is in the professors best interests. If I am a faculty member, my "customers"who include hirers of graduates, university administrators, governing boards, state legislatures, research funding agencies, parents, and studentswant different and frequently contradictory things. Regular self-assessment of team functioning. Unless this commitment is made and honored, attempts to implement a large-scale teaching improvement program are likely to consume an immense amount of time and effort and accomplish relatively little in the end.
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In industry, the customer is relatively easy to identify and is always right, at least in principle. Administrators who wish to make major improvements in the quality of their teaching programs should therefore provide incentives for faculty members to participate in the new programs, such as salary supplements, travel or equipment funds, or release from service responsibilities. After a suitable period has elapsed (which may be as short as 30 seconds or as long as 5 minutesshorter is generally better the instructor randomly calls on one or more students or teams to present their solutions. If I own a restaurant, the customers are the diners. Eric Document Reproduction Service, ED 377038., and. Take measures to provide positive interdependence. 1998; Meyers and Jones 1993 of which the most common is the small-group exercise. In industry, the true mission is relatively clear, and quality is relatively straightforward to define. Employees who make substantial contributions to meeting the goals of the company or of their superiors may be awarded bonuses, raises, and promotions. New paradigms for college teaching. Then, dont talk about TQMjust. For both of these reasons, if the CEO or the Board of Directors of a company decides that (for example) a TQM policy will be implemented, the policy is implemented, and staff members who fail to go along with it place themselves at risk.