Du Bois himself as an exemplar. There is not in the world a more disgraceful denial of brotherhood than the Jim-Crow car of the Southern United States; but, too, just as true, there is nothing more beautiful in the universe than sunset and moonlight on Montego Bay in far Jamaica. It tends often to fierce, angry, contemptuous judgment of nearly all that Negroes do, say, and believe. Blow has more than once cited the Strivings text in commenting on the contemporary paradoxes of black life brought into the open by some of President Obamas public statements in the wake of recent criminal justice controversies (Blow 2013). In what follows, we trace the fate of Du Boiss 1903 account in his later work and then try to assess the reconstructed account on its own terms. There is virtually no consideration of such issues in Souls. For Du Bois, the merging of the two selves can only take place if white prejudice and, in a word, racism, has been eliminated from the environing culture and the other worlds perspective on the Negro, and, consequently, from the Negros second sight. Du Bois is here considering the ideology of white supremacy, tracing out the historical conditions of its development and some of the psychological consequences it has for whites who accept it and live in and on the basis. All previous critical attention has been fixed steadily on the spiritual aspect of the phenomena of double consciousness, virtually none on the environing conditions Du Bois saw as giving rise. Rather, he employs, alternately, two strategies of writing in trying to capture its fullness. As Allen and others have pointed out (and Gooding-Williams acknowledges) Du Bois presents vague, seemingly empty, or competing accounts of just what the conflicting American and Negro ideals are. Gooding-Williams finds two sources for the idea of second sightone in African-American folklore, and one in the nineteenth-century literature on animal magnetism.
The double consciousness figure precedes Du Bois, coming out of the European romantic opposition between an innate human affinity for the transcendent and a pragmatic materialism grounded in a utilitarian attitude to life, to mundane needs and commercial enterprise. The American Negro, therefore, is surrounded and conditioned by the concept which he has of white people and he is treated in accordance with the concept they have of him. Because white Americans constitute what Du Bois refers to as the other world, a social group distinct from that of black folk, whites perceptions of and views about blacks would not normally be available to blacks, for Gooding-Williams; it is second sight that gives such.
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But also, by this time, his conception of race itself has opened up even further beyond that of any linear historical development. Henrys account of double consciousness identifies Du Boisian double-consciousness with the object of Frantz Fanons existential-psychoanalytic account of black self-consciousness, relying primarily on Fanons Black Skin, White Masks (1967). The stereotypes and images of Black people in America have evolved since Du Bois coined his term in 1897, but even the ever-changing understanding of Black culture leaves most African-Americans trapped in a conflict of who they are versus who they are believed. (1994: 23).3 A Deflationist Reading What might be called a deflationist approach to the interpretation of Du Boiss conception of double-consciousness is pursued by Adolph Reed,., in his 1997 book on Du Boiss political philosophy,.E.B. This attitude itself is, he continues, a natural phenomenon, since Negroes share average American culture and current American prejudices. This use of the term had some currency throughout the nineteenth century; William James, one of Du Boiss Harvard philosophy professors, described such cases as alternating between primary and secondary consciousnesses in his considerable discussion of them in the Principles of Psychology (1890: see esp. Souls as well as other of Du Boiss writings. The phenomenon is identified againbut without being so named againin the tenth chapter. But the facts on the ground cannot be denied.
Passage from Du Bois s 1897 Atlantic magazine essay, Strivings of the. In using the term double consciousness, Du Bois drew on two main sources. Double consciousness is a term describing the internal conflict experienced by sub ordinated groups in an oppressive society. It was coined.
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