element of Putnams theory clearly illustrates the basic purpose of sociological theory. Durkheim argued that the looser social ties found in Protestant religions lead to weaker social cohesion and reduced social solidarity. Definitions of political democracy have been drawn by some theorists so as to encompass one-party systems as well. Some symbolic interactionists, however, would counter that the incorporation of role theory into symbolic interactionism addresses this criticism. Other relevant material may be found in Elites ; Ideology ; Interest groups ; Mass society ; Military ; Parties, political ; Political group analysis ; Power ; Social movements ; Voluntary associations ; and in the biographies of Mannheim ; Marx ; Merriam ;. According to the power elite model, this is the result of a shift of political interest to the national arena; for the bargaining model, it is the outgrowth of the process of democratization, which brings representatives of ethnic, religious, and lower-status groups into political power. Wright Millss power elite concept first amendment junkie thesis (1956 in which the societal leadership is seen as an integrated ruling group of a capitalist economic system transformed, in part, by the pressures of international relations and exercising power on an arbitrary basis.
Conflict theorists, for example, may interpret an elite board of regents raising tuition to pay for esoteric new programs that raise the prestige of a local college as selfserving rather than as beneficial for students. In the functionalist perspective, societies are thought to function like organisms, with various social institutions working together like organs to maintain and reproduce them. In one sense, the major findings drive home, to those political sociologists who have held an overpoliticalized view of man, a more realistic image that has long been recognized as valid by most political leaders. Under conditions of rapid social change, the relevance of initial socialization variables in explaining mass political perspectives must be amplified by an understanding of the impact of education and involvement in secondary associations.
Others, such as Robert Dahl and Charles Lindblom, are concerned with the formulation of criteria which encompass the practices of administrative and community agencies. George Herbert Mead described self as taking the role of the other, the premise for which the self is actualized. The Internet is used by sociologists in various ways: (i) As a tool for research, for example, in using online questionnaires instead of paper ones, (ii) As a discussion platform, and (iii) As a research topic.e. These parts of the brain begin developing in early childhood (the preschool years) and aid humans in understanding how other people think. Sociology is a relatively new study among other social science disciplines including economics, political science, anthropology, psychology. These practices, however, cannot stand on their own without underlying theoretical questions (the why ) that guide the research. For example, the quantitative methods may help describe social patterns, while qualitative approaches could help to understand how individuals understand those patterns. It appears likely that sociologists will continue to spread their activities over an ever-widening region of national or global concern. While research studies document these trends in the transformation of social cleavage for some industrialized countries, especially the AngloAmerican countries and Scandinavia, the middlemajority theories have been criticized for failing to address themselves to the persistence of workingclass political behavior, especially in the Catholic countries.